Bitcoin is known as the very first decentralized digital currency, they’re basically coins that can send through the Internet. 2009 was the year where bitcoin was born. The creator’s name is unknown, however the alias Satoshi Nakamoto was given to this person. Bitcoin accounts cannot be frozen, prerequisites to open them don’t exist, same for limits on buy bitcoin with paypal .
Advantages of Bitcoin
Bitcoin transactions are made directly from person to person trough the internet. There’s no need of a bank or clearinghouse to act as the middle man. Thanks to that, the transaction fees are way too much lower, they can be used in all the countries around the world. Every day more merchants are starting to accept them. You can buy anything you want with them. How Bitcoin works. You should explore bitcoin mining. It’s possible to exchange dollars, euros or other currencies to bitcoin. You can buy and sell as it were any other country currency. In order to keep your bitcoins, you have to store them in something called wallets. These wallet are located in your pc, mobile device or in third party websites. Sending bitcoins is very simple. It’s as simple as sending an email. Invest in bitcoin to get great returns.
You can purchase practically anything with bitcoins.Bitcoin Anonymity.When doing a bitcoin transaction, there’s no need to provide the real name of the person. Each one of the bitcoin transactions are recorded is what is known as a public log. This log contains only wallet IDs and not people’s names. so basically each transaction is private. People can buy and sell things without being tracked.
Bitcoin innovation. Bitcoin established a whole new way of innovation. The bitcoin software is all open source, this means anyone can review it. A nowadays fact is that bitcoin is transforming world’s finances similar to how web changed everything about publishing. The concept is brilliant. When everyone has access to the whole bitcoin global market, new ideas appear. Transaction fees reductions is a fact of bitcoin. Accepting bitcoins cost anything, also they’re very easy to setup. Charge backs don’t exist. The bitcoin community will generate additional businesses of all kinds.
What Makes buy bitcoin with paypal So Interesting?
(Redirected from History of Bitcoin)
Number of bitcoin transactions per month (logarithmic scale)
Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses cryptography to control its creation and management, rather than relying on central authorities. The presumed pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto integrated many existing ideas from the cypherpunk community when creating bitcoin.
Prior to the release of bitcoin there were a number of digital cash technologies starting with the issuer based ecash protocols of David Chaum  and Stefan Brands. Adam Back developed hashcash, a proof-of-work scheme for spam control. The first proposals for distributed digital scarcity based cryptocurrencies were Wei Dai's b-money and Nick Szabo's bit gold.Hal Finney developed reusable proof of work (RPOW) using hashcash as its proof of work algorithm.
In the bit gold proposal which proposed a collectible market based mechanism for inflation control, Nick Szabo also investigated some additional enabling aspects including a Byzantine fault-tolerant asset registry to store and transfer the chained proof-of-work solutions.
There has been much speculation as to the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto with suspects including Wei Dai, Hal Finney and accompanying denials. The possibility that Satoshi Nakamoto was a computer collective in the European financial sector has also been bruited.
In November 2008, a paper was posted to a cryptography mailing list under the name Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. This paper detailed methods of using a peer-to-peer network to generate what was described as "a system for electronic transactions without relying on trust". In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence with the release of the first open source bitcoin client and the issuance of the first bitcoins, with Satoshi Nakamoto mining the first block of bitcoins ever (known as the genesis block), which had a reward of 50 bitcoins.
One of the first supporters, adopters, contributor to bitcoin and receiver of the first bitcoin transaction was programmer Hal Finney. Finney downloaded the bitcoin software the day it was released, and received 10 bitcoins from Nakamoto in the world's first bitcoin transaction. Other early supporters were Wei Dai, creator of bitcoin predecessor b-money, and Nick Szabo, creator of bitcoin predecessor bit gold.
In the early days, Nakamoto is estimated to have mined 1 million bitcoins. Before disappearing from any involvement in bitcoin, Nakamoto in a sense handed over the reins to developer Gavin Andresen, who then became the bitcoin lead developer at the Bitcoin Foundation, the 'anarchic' bitcoin community's closest thing to an official public face.
The value of the first bitcoin transactions were negotiated by individuals on the bitcointalk forums with one notable transaction of 10,000 BTC used to indirectly purchase two pizzas delivered by Papa John's.
On 6 August 2010, a major vulnerability in the bitcoin protocol was spotted. Transactions weren't properly verified before they were included in the transaction log or blockchain, which let users bypass bitcoin's economic restrictions and create an indefinite number of bitcoins. On 15 August, the vulnerability was exploited; over 184 billion bitcoins were generated in a transaction, and sent to two addresses on the network. Within hours, the transaction was spotted and erased from the transaction log after the bug was fixed and the network forked to an updated version of the bitcoin protocol. This was the only major security flaw found and exploited in bitcoin's history.
Based on bitcoin's open source code, other cryptocurrencies started to emerge.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a non-profit group, started accepting bitcoins in January 2011, stopped accepting them in June 2011, and began again in May 2013.
In June 2011 Wikileaks and other organizations began to accept bitcoins for donations. The Electronic Frontier Foundation began, and then temporarily suspended, bitcoin acceptance, citing concerns about a lack of legal precedent about new currency systems. The EFF's decision was reversed on 17 May 2013 when they resumed accepting bitcoin.
On 22 March 2011 WeUseCoins published the first viral video  which has had over 6.4 million views. In September 2011 Vitalik Buterin co-founded Bitcoin Magazine. On 23 December 2011, Douglas Feigelson of BitBills filed a patent application for "Creating And Using Digital Currency" with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, an action which was contested based on prior art in June 2013.
In January 2012, bitcoin was featured as the main subject within a fictionalized trial on the CBS legal drama The Good Wife in the third-season episode "Bitcoin for Dummies". The host of CNBC's Mad Money, Jim Cramer, played himself in a courtroom scene where he testifies that he doesn't consider bitcoin a true currency, saying "There's no central bank to regulate it; it's digital and functions completely peer to peer".
In September 2012, the Bitcoin Foundation was launched to "accelerate the global growth of bitcoin through standardization, protection, and promotion of the open source protocol". The founders were Gavin Andresen, Jon Matonis, Patrick Murck, Charlie Shrem, and Peter Vessenes.
In October 2012, BitPay reported having over 1,000 merchants accepting bitcoin under its payment processing service. In November 2012, WordPress had started accepting bitcoins.
In February 2013 the bitcoin-based payment processor Coinbase reported selling US$1 million worth of bitcoins in a single month at over $22 per bitcoin. The Internet Archive announced that it was ready to accept donations as bitcoins and that it intends to give employees the option to receive portions of their salaries in bitcoin currency.
In March the bitcoin transaction log called the blockchain temporarily split into two independent chains with differing rules on how transactions were accepted. For six hours two bitcoin networks operated at the same time, each with its own version of the transaction history. The core developers called for a temporary halt to transactions, sparking a sharp sell-off. Normal operation was restored when the majority of the network downgraded to version 0.7 of the bitcoin software. The Mt. Gox exchange briefly halted bitcoin deposits and the exchange rate briefly dipped by 23% to $37 as the event occurred before recovering to previous level of approximately $48 in the following hours. In the US, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) established regulatory guidelines for "decentralized virtual currencies" such as bitcoin, classifying American "bitcoin miners" who sell their generated bitcoins as Money Service Businesses (or MSBs), that may be subject to registration and other legal obligations.
In April, payment processors BitInstant and Mt. Gox experienced processing delays due to insufficient capacity resulting in the bitcoin exchange rate dropping from $266 to $76 before returning to $160 within six hours. Bitcoin gained greater recognition when services such as OkCupid and Foodler began accepting it for payment.
On 15 May 2013, the US authorities seized accounts associated with Mt. Gox after discovering that it had not registered as a money transmitter with FinCEN in the US.
On 17 May 2013, it was reported that BitInstant processed approximately 30 percent of the money going into and out of bitcoin, and in April alone facilitated 30,000 transactions,
On 23 June 2013, it was reported that the US Drug Enforcement Administration listed 11.02 bitcoins as a seized asset in a United States Department of Justice seizure notice pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 881. It is the first time a government agency has claimed to have seized bitcoin.
In July 2013 a project began in Kenya linking bitcoin with M-Pesa, a popular mobile payments system, in an experiment designed to spur innovative payments in Africa. During the same month the Foreign Exchange Administration and Policy Department in Thailand stated that bitcoin lacks any legal framework and would therefore be illegal, which effectively banned trading on bitcoin exchanges in the country. According to Vitalik Buterin, a writer for Bitcoin Magazine, "bitcoin's fate in Thailand may give the electronic currency more credibility in some circles", but he was concerned it didn't bode well for bitcoin in China.
On 6 August 2013, Federal Judge Amos Mazzant of the Eastern District of Texas of the Fifth Circuit ruled that bitcoins are "a currency or a form of money" (specifically securities as defined by Federal Securities Laws), and as such were subject to the court's jurisdiction, and Germany's Finance Ministry subsumed bitcoins under the term "unit of account"—a financial instrument—though not as e-money or a functional currency, a classification nonetheless having legal and tax implications.
In October 2013, the FBI seized roughly 26,000 BTC from website Silk Road during the arrest of alleged owner Ross William Ulbricht. Two companies, Robocoin and Bitcoiniacs launched the world's first bitcoin ATM on 29 October 2013 in Vancouver, BC, Canada, allowing clients to sell or purchase bitcoin currency at a downtown coffee shop. Chinese internet giant Baidu had allowed clients of website security services to pay with bitcoins.
In November 2013, the University of Nicosia announced that it would be accepting bitcoin as payment for tuition fees, with the university's chief financial officer calling it the "gold of tomorrow". During November 2013, the China-based bitcoin exchange BTC China overtook the Japan-based Mt. Gox and the Europe-based Bitstamp to become the largest bitcoin trading exchange by trade volume.
In December 2013, Overstock.com announced plans to accept bitcoin in the second half of 2014. On 5 December 2013, the People's Bank of China prohibited Chinese financial institutions from using bitcoins. After the announcement, the value of bitcoins dropped, and Baidu no longer accepted bitcoins for certain services. Buying real-world goods with any virtual currency has been illegal in China since at least 2009.
In January 2014, Zynga announced it was testing bitcoin for purchasing in-game assets in seven of its games. That same month, The D Las Vegas Casino Hotel and Golden Gate Hotel & Casino properties in downtown Las Vegas announced they would also begin accepting bitcoin, according to an article by USA Today. The article also stated the currency would be accepted in five locations, including the front desk and certain restaurants. The network rate exceeded 10 petahash/sec.TigerDirect and Overstock.com started accepting bitcoin.
In early February 2014, one of the largest bitcoin exchanges, Mt. Gox, suspended withdrawals citing technical issues. By the end of the month, Mt. Gox had filed for bankruptcy protection in Japan amid reports that 744,000 bitcoins had been stolen. Months before the filing, the popularity of Mt. Gox had waned as users experienced difficulties withdrawing funds.
In June 2014 the network exceeded 100 petahash/sec. On 18 June 2014, it was announced that bitcoin payment service provider BitPay would become the new sponsor of St. Petersburg Bowl under a two-year deal, renamed the Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl. Bitcoin was to be accepted for ticket and concession sales at the game as part of the sponsorship, and the sponsorship itself was also paid for using bitcoin.
In July 2014 Newegg and Dell started accepting bitcoin.
In September 2014 TeraExchange, LLC, received approval from the U.S.Commodity Futures Trading Commission "CFTC" to begin listing an over-the-counter swap product based on the price of a bitcoin. The CFTC swap product approval marks the first time a U.S. regulatory agency approved a bitcoin financial product.
In December 2014 Microsoft began to accept bitcoin to buy Xbox games and Windows software.
In January 2015 Coinbase raised 75 million USD as part of a Series C funding round, smashing the previous record for a bitcoin company. Less than one year after the collapse of Mt. Gox, United Kingdom-based exchange Bitstamp announced that their exchange would be taken offline while they investigate a hack which resulted in about 19,000 bitcoins (equivalent to roughly US$5 million at that time) being stolen from their hot wallet. The exchange remained offline for several days amid speculation that customers had lost their funds. Bitstamp resumed trading on 9 January after increasing security measures and assuring customers that their account balances would not be impacted.
In March 2015 21 Inc announced it had raised 116 million USD in venture funding, the largest amount for any digital currency-related companies.
As of August 2015 it was estimated that 160,000 merchants accept bitcoin payments.Barclays announced that they would become the first UK high street bank to start accepting bitcoin, with a plan to facilitate users to make charitable donations using the cryptocurrency outside their systems. They partnered in April 2016 with mobile payment startup Circle Internet Financial.
In October 2015, a proposal was submitted to the Unicode Consortium to add a codepoint for the bitcoin symbol.
In January 2016, the network rate exceeded 1 exahash/sec.
In March 2016, the Cabinet of Japan recognized virtual currencies like bitcoin as having a function similar to real money.Bidorbuy, the largest South African online marketplace, launched bitcoin payments for both buyers and sellers.
In April 2016, Steam started accepting bitcoin as payment for video games and other online media.
In July 2016, researchers published a paper showing that by November 2013 bitcoin commerce was no longer driven by "sin" activities but instead by legitimate enterprises. Uber switched to bitcoin in Argentina after the government blocked credit card companies from dealing with Uber.
In August 2016, a major bitcoin exchange, Bitfinex, was hacked and nearly 120,000 BTC (around $60m) was stolen.
In September 2016, the number of bitcoin ATMs had doubled over the last 18 months and reached 771 ATMs worldwide.
In November 2016, the Swiss Railway operator SBB (CFF) upgraded all their automated ticket machines so that bitcoin could be bought from them using the scanner on the ticket machine to scan the bitcoin address on a phone app.
Bitcoin generates more academic interest year after year; the number of Google Scholar articles published mentioning bitcoin grew from 83 in 2009, to 424 in 2012, and 3580 in 2016. Also, the academic Ledger (journal) published its first issue. It is edited by Peter Rizun.
The number of businesses accepting bitcoin continues to increase. In January 2017, NHK reported the number of online stores accepting bitcoin in Japan had increased 4.6 times over the past year. BitPay CEO Stephen Pair declared the company's transaction rate grew 3× from January 2016 to February 2017, and explained usage of bitcoin is growing in B2B supply chain payments.
Bitcoin gains more legitimacy among lawmakers and legacy financial companies. For example, Japan passed a law to accept bitcoin as a legal payment method, and Russia has announced that it will legalize the use of cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. And Norway’s largest online bank, Skandiabanken, integrate bitcoin accounts.
In the first half of 2017, 1 bitcoin surpassed the spot price of an ounce of gold for the first time, and subsequently broke its all-time high, reaching US$1,402.03 on 1 May 2017, and over US$1,800 on 11 May 2017. On 20 May 2017, the price of one bitcoin passed US$2,000 for the first time.
In March 2017, the number of GitHub projects related to bitcoin passed 10,000.
Exchange trading volumes continue to increase. For the 6-month period ending March 2017, Mexican exchange Bitso saw trading volume increase 1500%. Between January and May 2017 Poloniex saw an increase of more than 600% active traders online and regularly processed 640% more transactions.
In June 2017, the bitcoin symbol was encoded in Unicode version 10.0 at position U+20BF (₿) in the Currency Symbols block.
On 1 August 2017 bitcoin split into two derivative digital currencies, the classic bitcoin (BTC) and the Bitcoin Cash (BCH).
On 5 August 2017, the price of one BTC passed US$3,000 for the first time.
On 12 August 2017, the price of one BTC passed US$4,000 for the first time.
Two days later, the price of one BTC hit a record high of US$4,400 for the first time.
The price of a bitcoin reached US$1,139.9 on 4 January 2017. (semi logarithmic plot)
Among the factors which may have contributed to this rise were the European sovereign-debt crisis—particularly the 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis—statements by FinCEN improving the currency's legal standing and rising media and Internet interest.
Until 2013, almost all market with bitcoins were in US $.
As the market valuation of the total stock of bitcoins approached US$1 billion, some commentators called bitcoin prices a bubble. In early April 2013, the price per bitcoin dropped from $266 to around $50 and then rose to around $100. Over two weeks starting late June 2013 the price dropped steadily to $70. The price began to recover, peaking once again on 1 October at $140. On 2 October, The Silk Road was seized by the FBI. This seizure caused a flash crash to $110. The price quickly rebounded, returning to $200 several weeks later. The latest run went from $200 on 3 November to $900 on 18 November. Bitcoin passed US$1,000 on 28 November 2013 at Mt. Gox.
Prices fell to around $400 in April 2014, before rallying in the middle of the year. They then declined to not much more than $200 in early 2015.
In the second quarter of 2017, prices more than tripled from $1200 to over $4000.
Main article: Satoshi Nakamoto
"Satoshi Nakamoto" is presumed to be a pseudonym for the person or people who designed the original bitcoin protocol in 2008 and launched the network in 2009. Nakamoto was responsible for creating the majority of the official bitcoin software and was active in making modifications and posting technical information on the BitcoinTalk Forum. Investigations into the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto were attempted by The New Yorker and Fast Company. The New Yorker's investigation brought up at least two possible candidates: Michael Clear and Vili Lehdonvirta. Fast Company's investigation brought up circumstantial evidence linking an encryption patent application filed by Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry on 15 August 2008, and the bitcoin.org domain name which was registered 72 hours later. The patent application (#20100042841) contained networking and encryption technologies similar to bitcoin's, and textual analysis revealed that the phrase "... computationally impractical to reverse" appeared in both the patent application and bitcoin's whitepaper. All three inventors explicitly denied being Satoshi Nakamoto. In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki is Satoshi Nakamoto. Later in 2013 the Israeli researchers Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir pointed to Silk Road-linked Ross William Ulbricht as the possible person behind the cover. The two researchers based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions. These allegations were contested. Ron and Shamir later retracted their claim.
Nakamoto's involvement with bitcoin does not appear to extend past mid-2010. In April 2011, Nakamoto communicated with a bitcoin contributor, saying that he had "moved on to other things".
Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto's 500-plus bitcoin forum posts; the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Because this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time, and the hours of 5 a.m. to 11 a.m. GMT are midnight to 6 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (North American Eastern Standard Time). Other clues suggested that Nakamoto was British: A newspaper headline he had encoded in the genesis block came from the UK-published newspaper The Times, and both his forum posts and his comments in the bitcoin source code used British English spellings, such as "optimise" and "colour".
An Internet search by an anonymous blogger of texts similar in writing to the bitcoin whitepaper suggests Nick Szabo's "bit gold" articles as having a similar author. Nick denied being Satoshi, and stated his official opinion on Satoshi and bitcoin in a May 2011 article.
In a March 2014 article in Newsweek, journalist Leah McGrath Goodman doxed Dorian S. Nakamoto of Temple City, California, saying that Satoshi Nakamoto is the man's birth name. Her methods and conclusion drew widespread criticism.
In June 2016, the London Review of Books published a piece by Andrew O'Hagan about Nakamoto.
On 12 March 2013, a bitcoin miner running version 0.8.0 of the bitcoin software created a large block that was considered invalid in version 0.7 (due to an undiscovered inconsistency between the two versions). This created a split or "fork" in the blockchain since computers with the recent version of the software accepted the invalid block and continued to build on the diverging chain, whereas older versions of the software rejected it and continued extending the blockchain without the offending block. This split resulted in two separate transaction logs being formed without clear consensus, which allowed for the same funds to be spent differently on each chain. In response, the Mt. Gox exchange temporarily halted bitcoin deposits. The exchange rate fell 23% to $37 on the Mt. Gox exchange but rose most of the way back to its prior level of $48.
Miners resolved the split by downgrading to version 0.7, putting them back on track with the canonical blockchain. User funds largely remained unaffected and were available when network consensus was restored. The network reached consensus and continued to operate as normal a few hours after the split.
On 18 March 2013, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (or FinCEN), a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury, issued a report regarding centralized and decentralized "virtual currencies" and their legal status within "money services business" (MSB) and Bank Secrecy Act regulations. It classified digital currencies and other digital payment systems such as bitcoin as "virtual currencies" because they are not legal tender under any sovereign jurisdiction. FinCEN cleared American users of bitcoin of legal obligations by saying, "A user of virtual currency is not an MSB under FinCEN's regulations and therefore is not subject to MSB registration, reporting, and recordkeeping regulations." However, it held that American entities who generate "virtual currency" such as bitcoins are money transmitters or MSBs if they sell their generated currency for national currency: "...a person that creates units of convertible virtual currency and sells those units to another person for real currency or its equivalent is engaged in transmission to another location and is a money transmitter." This specifically extends to "miners" of the bitcoin currency who may have to register as MSBs and abide by the legal requirements of being a money transmitter if they sell their generated bitcoins for national currency and are within the United States. Since FinCEN issued this guidance, dozens of virtual currency exchangers and administrators have registered with FinCEN, and FinCEN is receiving an increasing number of suspicious activity reports (SARs) from these entities.
Additionally, FinCEN claimed regulation over American entities that manage bitcoins in a payment processor setting or as an exchanger: "In addition, a person is an exchanger and a money transmitter if the person accepts such de-centralized convertible virtual currency from one person and transmits it to another person as part of the acceptance and transfer of currency, funds, or other value that substitutes for currency."
In summary, FinCEN's decision would require bitcoin exchanges where bitcoins are traded for traditional currencies to disclose large transactions and suspicious activity, comply with money laundering regulations, and collect information about their customers as traditional financial institutions are required to do.
Patrick Murck of the Bitcoin Foundation criticized FinCEN's report as an "overreach" and claimed that FinCEN "cannot rely on this guidance in any enforcement action".[non-primary source needed]
Jennifer Shasky Calvery, the director of FinCEN said, "Virtual currencies are subject to the same rules as other currencies. ... Basic money-services business rules apply here."
In its October 2012 study, Virtual currency schemes, the European Central Bank concluded that the growth of virtual currencies will continue, and, given the currencies' inherent price instability, lack of close regulation, and risk of illegal uses by anonymous users, the Bank warned that periodic examination of developments would be necessary to reassess risks.
In 2013, the U.S. Treasury extended its anti-money laundering regulations to processors of bitcoin transactions.
In June 2013, Bitcoin Foundation board member Jon Matonis wrote in Forbes that he received a warning letter from the California Department of Financial Institutions accusing the foundation of unlicensed money transmission. Matonis denied that the foundation is engaged in money transmission and said he viewed the case as "an opportunity to educate state regulators."
In late July 2013, the industry group Committee for the Establishment of the Digital Asset Transfer Authority began to form to set best practices and standards, to work with regulators and policymakers to adapt existing currency requirements to digital currency technology and business models and develop risk management standards.
In 2014, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filed an administrative action against Erik T. Voorhees, for violating Securities Act Section 5 for publicly offering unregistered interests in two bitcoin websites in exchange for bitcoins.
Bitcoins can be stored in a bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet. Theft of bitcoin has been documented on numerous occasions. At other times, bitcoin exchanges have shut down, taking their clients' bitcoins with them. A Wired study published April 2013 showed that 45 percent of bitcoin exchanges end up closing.
On 19 June 2011, a security breach of the Mt. Gox bitcoin exchange caused the nominal price of a bitcoin to fraudulently drop to one cent on the Mt. Gox exchange, after a hacker used credentials from a Mt. Gox auditor's compromised computer illegally to transfer a large number of bitcoins to himself. They used the exchange's software to sell them all nominally, creating a massive "ask" order at any price. Within minutes, the price reverted to its correct user-traded value. Accounts with the equivalent of more than US$8,750,000 were affected.
In July 2011, the operator of Bitomat, the third-largest bitcoin exchange, announced that he had lost access to his wallet.dat file with about 17,000 bitcoins (roughly equivalent to US$220,000 at that time). He announced that he would sell the service for the missing amount, aiming to use funds from the sale to refund his customers.
In August 2011, MyBitcoin, a now defunct bitcoin transaction processor, declared that it was hacked, which caused it to be shut down, paying 49% on customer deposits, leaving more than 78,000 bitcoins (equivalent to roughly US$800,000 at that time) unaccounted for.
In early August 2012, a lawsuit was filed in San Francisco court against Bitcoinica — a bitcoin trading venue — claiming about US$460,000 from the company. Bitcoinica was hacked twice in 2012, which led to allegations that the venue neglected the safety of customers' money and cheated them out of withdrawal requests.
In late August 2012, an operation titled Bitcoin Savings and Trust was shut down by the owner, leaving around US$5.6 million in bitcoin-based debts; this led to allegations that the operation was a Ponzi scheme. In September 2012, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission had reportedly started an investigation on the case.
In September 2012, Bitfloor, a bitcoin exchange, also reported being hacked, with 24,000 bitcoins (worth about US$250,000) stolen. As a result, Bitfloor suspended operations. The same month, Bitfloor resumed operations; its founder said that he reported the theft to FBI, and that he plans to repay the victims, though the time frame for repayment is unclear.
On 3 April 2013, Instawallet, a web-based wallet provider, was hacked, resulting in the theft of over 35,000 bitcoins which were valued at US$129.90 per bitcoin at the time, or nearly $4.6 million in total. As a result, Instawallet suspended operations.
On 11 August 2013, the Bitcoin Foundation announced that a bug in a pseudorandom number generator within the Android operating system had been exploited to steal from wallets generated by Android apps; fixes were provided 13 August 2013.
In October 2013, Inputs.io, an Australian-based bitcoin wallet provider was hacked with a loss of 4100 bitcoins, worth over A$1 million at time of theft. The service was run by the operator TradeFortress. Coinchat, the associated bitcoin chat room, has been taken over by a new admin.
On 26 October 2013, a Hong-Kong based bitcoin trading platform owned by Global Bond Limited (GBL) vanished with 30 million yuan (US$5 million) from 500 investors.
Mt. Gox, the Japan-based exchange that in 2013 handled 70% of all worldwide bitcoin traffic, declared bankruptcy in February 2014, with bitcoins worth about $390 million missing, for unclear reasons. The CEO was eventually arrested and charged with embezzlement.
On 3 March 2014, Flexcoin announced it was closing its doors because of a hack attack that took place the day before. In a statement that now occupies their homepage, they announced on 3 March 2014 that "As Flexcoin does not have the resources, assets, or otherwise to come back from this loss [the hack], we are closing our doors immediately." Users can no longer log into the site.
Chinese cryptocurrency exchange Bter lost $2.1 million in BTC in February 2015.
The Slovenian exchange Bitstamp lost bitcoin worth $5.1 million to a hack in January 2015.
The US-based exchange Cryptsy declared bankruptcy in January 2016, ostensibly because of a 2014 hacking incident; the court-appointed receiver later alleged that Cryptsy's CEO had stolen $3.3 million.
In May 2016, Gatecoin closed temporarily after a breach had caused a loss of about $2 million in cryptocurrency. It subsequently relaunched its exchange in August 2016 and is slowly reimbursing its customers.
In August 2016, hackers stole some $72 million in customer bitcoin from the Hong-Kong-based exchange Bitfinex.
See also: Legality of bitcoin by country or territory
In 2012, the Cryptocurrency Legal Advocacy Group (CLAG) stressed the importance for taxpayers to determine whether taxes are due on a bitcoin-related transaction based on whether one has experienced a "realization event": when a taxpayer has provided a service in exchange for bitcoins, a realization event has probably occurred and any gain or loss would likely be calculated using fair market values for the service provided."
In August 2013, the German Finance Ministry characterized bitcoin as a unit of account, usable in multilateral clearing circles and subject to capital gains tax if held less than one year.
On 5 December 2013, the People's Bank of China announced in a press release regarding bitcoin regulation that whilst individuals in China are permitted to freely trade and exchange bitcoins as a commodity, it is prohibited for Chinese financial banks to operate using bitcoins or for bitcoins to be used as legal tender currency, and that entities dealing with bitcoins must track and report suspicious activity to prevent money laundering. The value of bitcoin dropped on various exchanges between 11 and 20 percent following the regulation announcement, before rebounding upward again.
On 18 June 2014, it was announced that bitcoin payment service provider BitPay would become the new sponsor of the St. Petersburg Bowl game under a two-year deal, renamed the Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl. Bitcoin will be accepted for ticket and concession sales as part of the sponsorship, and the sponsorship itself was also paid for using bitcoin. On 2 April 2015, after one year of sponsorship, BitPay declined to renew sponsorship of the game.
Markets NeededBitcoin broke the gold barrier. The last time it touched this "third rail" was a shocker. It dropped precipitously and it required over three years to claw its way back. So far, so good. Japan is in the news of late. It now accepts Bitcoin as a payment method. Retailers and tourism are poised to receive a boost. Optimist think that this development will serve to increase bitcoin valuations and push adoption, at least in Asia. So here we are again. But maybe not. The SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) in the United States has essentially rejected bitcoin as an investment option. Repeatedly. The long and the short of it is, it can't be regulated internationally. It's too free. Oh, and some bad players might rip you off. And the SEC can't spy on every business in China -- and elsewhere -- offering bitcoin. If the SEC can't spy on you -- just to keep you safe you understand -- then its a non-player. A non-starter. Will the U.S. Government ever allow a legalized Bitcoin? This latest review might be a downer. Be prepared with a little gold and silver...and a bit of Monero. But let us dig a little deeper. In the obvious 'mine.' Bitcoin is an international monetary unit. A type of functional money. A large portion of the mining and transactions are taking place in China. China is not a cooperative country. It is a highly centralized communist dictatorship. It is not a friend of the world. As such, the U.S. looks at a the global picture. What is the global picture? Just as stated. Enemies must be very careful. They must take care not to be undermined in any sphere. Militarily, financially, even business relationships, are all areas that could pose a threat. Bitcoin poses a threat. A financial threat. It's just another part of the global currency wars. And you think Uncle Same will turn a blind eye? Will bitcoin be able to hold against gold this time around? Will math beat out a monetary unit which his existed for thousands of years? Will codes conquer substance -- gold? It'll be an interesting next few months as both sides, the crypto-lovers and the SEC (and the IRS and Uncle Sammy) go at it. Now Japan sides with crypto. But they need all the help they can get. Come to think of it so do we -- the U.S. But whose carrying the big stick? Thus far the answer, at least on a temporary basis, seems to be the people carry the monetary 'bitcoin' stick. Until, that is, governments become involved. Then one needs to make a choice. Shall you stay with bitcoin if any government attempts to influence its code, for example.? Or should you diversify? Before we go there, recently one the the most important core developers has bought something to the attention of the world. It the fact, according to Greg Maxwell, they've now confirmed it. Suffice it to say that a type of flaw in the bitcoin code allows some miners to mine 20% faster (called the AsicBoost). It's a real cash cow and why, according to some, the big Chinese mining companies do not wish to fix the code. See more here. That recent bit of news has faded for now. Litecoin has been around for awhile. To us watchers, the newest prices of LTC brings back memories. Maybe they can climb above $30.00 each again -- and hold. But wait a minute, it did! If bitcoin continues to lose ground, it seems to be the logical next "trusted" choice. And it is well overdue for a spike -- a pump. You would need to do the homework on it again, however. To see if you think "scrpyt" coins are as tough as SHA-256. It is really interesting that Litecoin moved ahead with Segwit. This improvement would "fix" the problems bitcoin currently faces. According to Maxwell, bitcoin, especially the ones making the "killing" in China, could block any such Segwit improvements to bitcoin. The bulletin boards are chirping that bitcoin will eventually adopt Segwit. But how can this be verified? It can go either way. Monero (and Aeon or even Bytecoin) need something really special before they will be accepted and acceptable, by the masses. Like real estate needs location, location, location, a currency needs...markets, markets, markets. They don't have them, yet. Trust is being built, however. Time does this. DASH has a bit more exposure, more markets, so in a sense, it is easier to trade and use. But based upon observational experience, DASH looks to be madly pumping and dumping. A crash back to earth should be expected soon. No sooner than I typed these words a few hours ago, DASH sunk over 90 million dollars...then 100 million... In the weeks that followed, DASH is surprising even me. Soaring to new heights and then crashing back. Is it only a "people pile?" Add to this, Craig Wright's recent mad filing of patents related to Bitcoin and it makes you go, "Hrumph!" Clearly, one blockchain isn't going to get it. We need security, not monolithic cryptography. The more the merrier. But blockchains, without flaws. Not possible really. There are always coding issues. Suffice it to say that psychologically, many will be looking for a cool million dollars on these recent run ups in value of many coins. Beware of trade volumes, however. Exchanges like Poloniex, for example, may only make it possible to sell $50,000 to $100,000 at any given moment. Which isn't bad, if their service does not go down. It's always safer to work on several exchanges and even use the decentralized ones, if you dare. And as for DASH. When will all the voluntary DASH nodes get cold feet? If you run a master node and have set aside 1000 DASH and that DASH soars in value; and you start seeing gold coins and big houses, swimming pools and nice cars, are you really going to keep your DASH? Do you think Duf-boy is not cashing in? How about after recent attack they suffered? You know they are thinking hard on it now. After reaching over a $200 a coin, you know they are wondering. PoloniexMost of Monero's and DASH's business is generated -- from what is visible -- on just one exchange: Poloniex. Many cryptocurrency aficionados often refer to some coins as being "owned" by Poloniex. In other words, that Poloniex is the "pump." That they can rig the game. At least push it along. Kraken finally added Monero. HitBTC and LiveCoin can also serve to stabilize trading. At present HitBTC is pulling some serious weight and could unseat Poloniex in the XMR realm. It's a wait and see thing. Thus far, neither Monero, DASH, Aeon or any other related "private" cryptocurrency, has the market pull of Bitcoin or even the taxed "Zcash." I call Zcash a post-mine. You mine some Zcash and they take their cut up front. And if you're asking about "Zcoin" then ask yourself how many developers are backing it, before you go that route. Add to all of this, the fact that Bitcoin may morph into a more private-centric coin in the near future. And just maybe the "devs" will try to level the playing field. If you trust them. Is this a good idea? I mean if you make better ASIC's to mine BTC faster, then what's the issue? Technology wins. However, if you are exploiting a backdoor of sorts, that's another thing entirely. It's not about being unfair, it's about a broken cryptocurrency. Maybe the "devs" have finally screwed up bitcoin to the "point of no return." Ease of UseMonero (and AEON) might unseat Bitcoin and Ethereum in the near future. DASH is certainly a contender. Bytecoin, a dark horse with alleged "scammy" beginnings. In all probability, Monero is best positioned to accomplish this, but there are stumbling blocks. The fact that Monero appears to be focused upon privacy, but the user does have the option to publicize transactions to a point, for taxes and other purposes. But we don't really know who the developers of these coins are. Doesn't that bother you? Aeon intends to do things a bit differently and this fact could usher in a entirely new method of monetary transactions. It's privacy with a choice to go public as well. Still, does it matter how good something is, if we do not have the name of the primary creator(s) of the "thing?" DASH is up front about its development, but is that a strength? Many cite DASH's "instamine" as a reason to steer clear, but look at the GUI -- the easy to use software. Test it. Then test Bitcoin or Monero GUI's. Who is the true underdog here? Or the best salesman -- as in "used car salesman"? "...separating the wheat from the chaff..." Remember the LaymanThe trouble one always finds in the cryptocurrency world is separating the wheat from the chaff. Scam-coins abound and even legitimate attempts to create a currency and/or monetary unit in this new "cyber-money-space" are often met with disdain, if not outright ridicule. There is much to read and understand, but with a modicum of foresight, one can judge a cryptocurrency by its cover and a bit of the innards, when they are visible. In short, the layman is often left confused and bored. Protection?Since currency and money are very sensitive subjects, the fact that cryptocurrency creators maintain anonymity, may be their only protection. I'm not spouting conspiracy theories, but judge for yourself, the number of developers of these technologies, who have been investigated, ridiculed, ostracized, fined, jailed and finally, imprisoned. SecrecyMathematical geniuses are taking on monetary totalitarianism and they are being picked off, like pigeons at the Vatican. No wonder Monero and Aeon developers remain private. They know the score. Using cyberspace to live free and a digital underground railroad -- to get the code out. DASH is taking a different road. It's letting the software do the work of anonymity. Some call this the high road. Others call this foolhardy. Evan Duffield, social engineer? And another thing, why would the creator of DASH admit on video (see time frame 36:15 in the above video) that he was once a "black hat hacker?" Once dabbled in a bit of crime? Isn't that a foolish statement to make while being interviewed by your employee...Amanda B. Johnson. The same Johnson who once referred to gold as a rock. A relic from a past age? Maybe she is right, but... Clearly these noobs need a PR person, but maybe it's too late now. And maybe it's all planned by Mr. Past Black Hat himself, Evan Duffield, in an effort to jettison DASH before the crypto-sphere collapses. Take his money and run. I mean really, do you think people are foolish enough to pour money into an "iffy" project, long term? Does not leadership or the lack of it, count? But let us not be obtuse. These new Fintech geniuses are attempting to rewrite monetary history and this fact is not going unnoticed. So it becomes a two edged sword? A scam that will result in many prosecutions or a success that will lead to mass adoption by governments and the elimination of private cryptocurrencies altogether. We may be investing in a scam or the next great cryptocurrency. Again, how do you feel about a semi-professionally run organization, like "gray hat" DASH, versus a secretly run Monero? Get that raw feeling in your gut? Bitcoin EraFrom the beginning, which we might label as the Bitcoin Era, the landscape of money itself was altered. Not only are the finance houses from the old empires attempting to catch up, but we the people are left with a choice. Do we allow ourselves to be governed by the chains attached to our wallets or do we evolve? Recently, Sweden rejected a state run cryptocurrency. Few even know about bitcoin. China is preparing to go full steam ahead with a state controlled "Communist Crypto." Any takers? But bitcoin, as I have asserted repeatedly, is a bridge to a better currency. A way to move from a valueless currency (fiat systems) to a valuable one. Maybe. In the meantime, we the people of earth, not nations, are at a fiscal crossroads. We are able, at this moment in history, to remove a thorn from our collective wallets. The thorn of control. That monetary mafia. Can you guess what I am on about? Bitcoin was the first lesson. Things like Monero, Aeon and DASH take the next logical step: privacy. Or partial privacy. But, Aeon, like Monero are the dark-horses. DASH, not so much. Maybe a gray colt, as yet UN-castrated. Meaning what would happen if the DASH team was pulled aside by the U.S. Justice Department? What is to stop the IRS from requesting the Book of DASH from Mr. DASH himself? Nothing. Always, there must be "updates," however. And the lords of control (the developers) will eventually and irrevocably, be remade. That's why things beyond the reach of our minders (our Deep States) must -- should be built. Because such constructs solve two problems: abuse by criminals and abuse of power, by our minders. But why does privacy matter? This video tells us why privacy remains important in the digital age. Final WordsAccording to Cryptocoinsnews, in a article titled "Coinbase CEO Armstrong: Ethereum Scaling Better Than Bitcoin," dated September 21, 2016, Coinbase (a Cryptocurrency Exchange) got an earful from Reddit users about Monero. If Coinbase or other such exchanges list Monero, this could certainly boost usage. However, if one considers the privacy of Monero, such integration could prove problematic for any Cryptocurrency Exchange. Bitcoin is public and the developers are known. Same for Ethereum. But Monero is private and only one spokesman has come forward publicly. Riccardo Spagni. But Spagni does not control Monero. Given the laws and rules surrounding the transmission of money, especially within the United States, one wonders how Monero could ever hope to comply, unless it allows (enforces) the option to "publicize" transactions. Unless Monero can trace Monero -- completely. And that would defeat its purpose, violate one's rights to keep his/her financial details private and, presumably, kill the coin. Now, there are ways to provide law enforcement with the ability to track your Monero transactions, but you must volunteer that information. With Bitcoin, it's far easier to investigate your every dealing, purchase, or savings amount, since all transactions and account balances are public by default. Then the question arises, would you ever volunteer to anyone, never mind your local intrusive government, how and where you store your cash? But the fact that Monero leaves that option up to the person, up to the user, takes the onus off of them. Does DASH have these same problems? Do former "black hats" lie? PredictionI'm not an Edgar Cayce type, but I just consulted my tea leaves. They say that Monero will soon be absorbing DASH's thunder. (Hasn't happened though. Bad publicity?) Bitcoin will begin a slow tumble, south of gold value; and some new form of cryptocurrency, easy to use, not energy hogging, private and secure, backed by "something other than air," will gobble them all. (No such luck on this prediction either. Bitcoin continues to defy even me. And Iota just seems to sit.) In the meantime, a certain U.S. based Cryptocurrency Exchange, with its recent approval to sell and trade new crpyto-coins from the SEC, will open it's more of its books to Uncle Sammy -- behind closed doors. (Actually, the aforementioned exchange is still fighting this loosing battle.) So what is going on? Really? First the SEC refuses bitcoin ETF's in the U.S., then they happily allow more crypto to be sold by a virtually unregulated "exchange" company. Do you smell something? In a year of two, after this, the audits will begin. That's is after the NSA and other more secret agencies, have ferreted about the crypto records room and played out all possible terrorist connections, foreign agent problems and similar. If us noob citizens are lucky, the good guys (the U.S. Government) won't eat its own. After all, the IRS wouldn't just take our money without first determining that tax evasion actually occurred right? Think again. Think hard. Do you really think that the "public" companies in America, the ones that sell cryptocurrencies, have not opened every private electronic vault to Uncle Sam? Yeah, I wish I had more Monero about now, but I am too concerned about the IRS and its gang of goons, who will pick me over like some nice road pizza. I use to like Coinbase, but since they are taking it up the you-know-what, I'd prefer not be present for the fun and frolic ahead. And one last bit of info. After they take down fluffypony, there will only be one standing: Aeon. Keep an eye on the Dude. Check that, keep an eye on the grandpa: Bytecoin. Disclaimer for the Lawsuit HappyOh, so that lawyers won't salivate, please note that the above Hub (you can call it a blog if you like) is in no way any kind of advice to buy, sell, mine or read about cryptocurrencies. In fact, everyone on earth should henceforth, stop thinking, buy government bonds or move to the paradise of Venezuela...if you think that private blockchains are not the future or at least a path on the way to better Fintech.
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