The Definition of Bitcoin trusted bitcoin investment sites
Almost everyone now knows about trusted bitcoin investment sites trading. While most people have had success with the currency, there are others that have faced challenges. If you are planning on getting into the market here are some of the things you should be wary of:
The bitcoin wallet
To use the coins, you need a digital wallet. It can be an app, hardware or cloud based. Some trusted bitcoin investment sites companies help beginners by automatically generating the wallets for them. You can store the purses online or offline. For security reasons, save yours online and ensure that the password protects it. Avoid an online wallet as it can easily be hacked. If you have to use the unit keep a limited amount of money in it.
While this is the case, it doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t be conversant with the prices in the market. Regularly visit forums and related places to find the current prices of the coins. Who knows you might find it profitable selling it at the current prices? Bitcoin investing can be quite lucrative
Getting Started With trusted bitcoin investment sites:
Bitcoin Cash’s sudden announcement on Saturday that they’ll go ahead with a fork on August 1 caught a lot of people, including myself, by surprise. In this article, I’m going to explain what Bitcoin Cash (aka BCC) is, how it affects you and how you should prepare for August 1.
What is Bitcoin Cash?
- Here is the project announcement on Bitcointalk.
- Here is the project website.
From the project website’s FAQ:What is Bitcoin Cash?
Bitcoin Cash is peer-to-peer electronic cash for the Internet. It is fully decentralized, with no central bank and requires no trusted third parties to operate.
The prominent use of “peer-to-peer electronic cash” is purposeful here. Bitcoin Cash is seeking to be a cryptocurrency that’s focused on transaction capacity.
Why is this fork a surprise?
Many people (including myself) thought that this fork would only trigger if BIP148 were able to split the network. In other words, many people thought Bitcoin Cash (and its client Bitcoin ABC) was just a credible threat to prevent a contentious user-activated soft fork (UASF). Bitmain actually stated that the Segwit2x (aka New York Agreement) would be preferable:
So naturally, when BIP91 (first part of Segwit2x) locked-in and activated ahead of BIP148, which is scheduled for August 1, most assumed this would prevent the so-called user-activated hard fork (UAHF) from triggering.
But, it looks like Bitcoin Cash supporters had other ideas.
Why should I care?
You should care because Bitcoin Cash is a permanent fork of Bitcoin.
Again, from the FAQ:Is Bitcoin Cash different from ‘Bitcoin’?
Yes. Bitcoin Cash is the continuation of the Bitcoin project as peer-to-peer digital cash. It is a fork of the Bitcoin blockchain ledger, with upgraded consensus rules that allow it to grow and scale.
This means that if you own Bitcoin (that is, you control your own private keys) prior to the fork on 2017 August 1 12:20 UTC, you will have the same amount of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash after the fork.
Lest you think these BCC isn’t worth anything, BCC futures are currently trading at about $475 on ViaBTC.
What do I need to know?
First, you should know that many exchanges, including Coinbase, are simply not prepared for this event.
Again, from the FAQ:If I own Bitcoin, do I automatically own Bitcoin Cash too?
Yes. Because Bitcoin Cash is a fork of the ledger, that means you own the same amount of Bitcoin Cash as you did Bitcoin at the time of the forking block. However, if your Bitcoins are stored by a third party such as an exchange, then you must inquire with them about your cash.
Note that last sentence. Exchanges or third-party bitcoin storage providers may or may not give you your Bitcoin Cash. It’s likely that third party services will try to do the right thing, but there’s no way to know if they can get everything set up in time to be able to give you the Bitcoin Cash you’re entitled to.
Second, all hard forks present two risks: replay and wipeout attacks. Wipeout is not a as much risk since this is a permanent fork (there are scenarios where one chain’s miners may attack the other, but this isn’t in play yet). Replay protection is provided as part of the Bitcoin Cash release as explained in the FAQ:How is transaction replay being handled between the new and the old blockchain?
Bitcoin Cash transactions use a new flag SIGHASH_FORKID, which is non standard to the legacy blockchain. This prevents Bitcoin Cash transactions from being replayed on the Bitcoin blockchain and vice versa.
Rest assured that as long as you control your own private keys, you should be able to use those keys to create transactions on either chain safely.
I thought Bitcoin solved scaling! Why is this happening?
Good question. After the scaling drama of the past few years, we finally made progress when BIP91 locked in on Thursday. Though Segwit increases transaction capacity, it’s not done so in a way that everyone is happy with.
BCC looks like an appeal to the segment of the Bitcoin users that don’t like Segwit. Since Segwit is getting activated on Bitcoin, this fork gives many of these people a place to go.
From the FAQ:Why was a fork necessary to create Bitcoin Cash?
The legacy Bitcoin code had a maximum limit of 1MB of data per block, or about 3 transactions per second. Although technically simple to raise this limit, the community could not reach a consensus, even after years of debate.
So what features does Bitcoin Cash have?
Bitcoin Cash offers three new features. First, it offers a much larger block size of 8MB.
Second, it offers replay and wipeout protection. The transaction signature is slightly different and the forking block has to be greater than 1MB.
Third, it offers a way to adjust the proof-of-work difficulty quicker than the normal 2016 block difficulty adjustment interval found in Bitcoin.
From the project announcement on Bitcointalk:Forking rule:
“REQ-7 Difficulty adjustement in case of hashrate dropIn case the MTP of the tip of the chain is 12h or more after the MTP 6 block before the tip, the proof of work target is increased by a quarter, or 25%, which corresponds to a difficulty reduction of 20% .RATIONALE: The hashrate supporting the chain is dependent on market price and hard to predict. In order to make sure the chain remains viable no matter what difficulty needs to adjust down in case of abrupt hashrate drop.”
In other words, the difficulty will adjust pretty quickly should there be a low hash rate.
What does this mean for Bitcoin?
This is the hardest thing to answer. It may mean nothing, it may mean a lot. Some obvious things that we’ll now need to think about are:
- Who will mine Bitcoin Cash?
- Who will have the larger hash rate? Both coins will use double-sha256 as the proof-of-work.
- What will the price ratio be?
- What will the volumes on both coins be like?
- How will hash rate react to price? How will price react to hash rate?
- How will this affect the 2x HF part of Segwit2x?
- What chain will coins that operate on top of Bitcoin like Omni and CounterParty choose?
Unfortunately, the Bitcoin Cash announcement brings more questions than answers. One thing is for certain: if you want to maximize your holdings, it’s in your best interest to get your Bitcoin off third-party services and control your own private keys before August 1st.
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Ten Rules for Trading Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Other Crypto
Bitcoin is a revolutionary way to save or spend digital money, and has the potential to transform other realms too. You don’t need to be a mathematician or a cryptographer to understand it, and when you start to see how the system comes full circle, you may be delighted. This is the first of three parts.
Let’s say I send you a movie or song over the Internet. I attach a file to an email, and once I hit send, you have it. You can watch the movie or delete it. You can do what you want with the movie.
But keep this in mind: I still have a copy.
This is how digital information typically moves around the Internet. You don’t really transfer content, you copy it. And so far, this has worked out pretty well: Although it may not be legal or fair, copying a song or movie is unlikely to devastate the economy.
But now think about copying money.
If I send you a dollar, it’s important that I don’t get to keep a copy. Using email to make infinite digital money might seem attractive at first, but what happens once everyone starts doing it? There would be rampant inflation and the economy would fall down.
Traditionally, in the world of wire transfers and debit cards, digital money is tracked centrally to prevent duplication. A database, at your bank for example, verifies who owns what. This system relies on centralized authority, which is a familiar concept, so we “get it.” Of course, that central authority has complete control over your money.
But what if there’s another way? What if, instead of relying on an fallible centralized authority to assure us of who has what, we rely on distributed authority that isn’t controlled by a single party? What if our money has value not because we trust the power of a government to back it, but because we trust the power of math?
This takes us to Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is a system of digital currency that is not associated with any government or institution.
Somewhat confusingly, the word “bitcoin” (without capitalization) is also the name used for the currency itself. The system (Bitcoin) was created in 2009, but the units of currency (bitcoin) are being generated continuously through a process called mining. It’s sort of like gold mining, but for the digital 21st Century.
All transactions on the Bitcoin network are permanently recorded in a long list called the blockchain. This is not a secret list guarded by a central authority. It is a widely distributed public list, and every participating computer has a copy of it.
The Bitcoin blockchain is an immutable, public, distributed ledger:
By immutable, I mean that once a record has been in the blockchain for a couple hours, changing or erasing it becomes infeasible. This happens because so many other transactions have been built on top of it by then.
By public, I mean that anyone, not just a bank employee, can look at the blockchain. This doesn’t mean that you can see exactly who is sending or receiving money, because records are pseudonymous — identity is obscured through the use of pseudonyms, which are typically short-lived.
By distributed, I mean that synchronized copies of the blockchain are held by computers all over the world. There is no canonical master copy; all copies are created equal.
And finally, by ledger, I mean that the blockchain is a list of transactions. Think of it like your Venmo transaction list, if you know what that is.
This distributed ledger is called the “blockchain” because individual transactions get grouped into larger “blocks,” which are chained together in a sequence. This is faster than adding transactions one-by-one, and a new block of transactions is created every 10 minutes or so.
To better illustrate the power of an immutable, public, distributed ledger, let’s imagine a common but hypothetical situation involving $5 worth of bitcoin. (The value of a bitcoin can rise or fall, but $5 is likely just a fraction of a single bitcoin.)
In our hypothetical situation, my friend Elizabeth sends me $5 in bitcoin, a transaction recorded in the blockchain — because every transaction is. In turn, I send $5 to you because every copy of the blockchain now shows that I own the money that used to belong to Elizabeth. Nobody involved — me, you, or Elizabeth — needs to ask an authoritative central database who owns what, or for permission. Authority is decentralized; it is in every copy of the blockchain, everywhere.
You may be wondering: Where did Elizabeth get that bitcoin she sent to me?
The short answer is that someone probably sent it to her. This is how almost everyone gets their bitcoin.
But those coins had to be created initially. How did that happen?
How a Bitcoin is Born
U.S. dollars are born when the U.S. government prints them, and other traditional currencies are also issued by their respective governments. A long time ago, U.S. dollars were backed by an equivalent amount of gold in the U.S. treasury, and in those days creating additional currency required coming up with commensurate gold — hence the popularity of gold mining.
A bitcoin is also created through a process called mining. It’s digital mining, accomplished with computers and software rather than dynamite and shovels. In order for a new block of transactions to be added to the blockchain, a burdensome math problem must be solved, and the “miner” who solves the problem first is rewarded with brand new bitcoins. That’s how bitcoins are mined.
In other words, mining does two things: It adds blocks to the blockchain and it creates new bitcoin. And that math problem that the miners are racing to solve involves something called hashing.
A hash is a fingerprint for data, in that it uniquely identifies a piece of digital content — whether the content is a photo, a photo album, a movie, a password, text, or whatever. It is derived from the digital content, through a process called “hashing,” and it can take the form of a string of letters, numbers, and other symbols.
Hashing is a core concept in computer science, widely used behind the scenes. To enhance security, online services often store hashes of passwords rather than actual passwords, and compare hashes rather than passwords when you log in. Facebook uses hashes to check the appropriateness of uploaded images. Nobody at Facebook looks at every image to see if it is violent or pornographic. Instead, Facebook takes images that have been reported as inappropriate and hashes them, creating a list of fingerprints of bad content. Every time a new photo is uploaded to Facebook, it’s hashed using the same function. The resulting hash is compared to the list of hashes of banned content — and if they match, Facebook knows the photo is one of the inappropriate ones.
Typically, when software runs a hash function, it takes input data— like a photo — and outputs a gobbledygook string, which is the hash.
So for example, let’s give this picture of a puppy to a hash function called SHA-256:“Puppy” by Jonathan Kriz is licensed under CC BY 2.0.
Clearly this picture of a sweet puppy isn’t violating any Facebook rules! Anybody can tell that. But no person at Facebook is reviewing the picture. Instead, software at Facebook checks the hash of the picture, which is this:8EC9D4718F919C6087CA589EDA09E7DD9A7ACCDB820F42B4196E1D0D4BEDE77A
That’s the SHA-256 result of that picture, expressed in hexadecimal. Not quite as cute as the puppy!
An interesting feature of a hash function is that if we change the input even slightly, the output will be entirely different. Let’s say, for example, that we change just one pixel of the photo of the puppy, by putting a 1-pixel black flea above his eye:Can you see the flea?
When we hash the photo, we get an entirely different hash, even though only one pixel changed:039E1AF92F7D00775ECE35C2216FC3F7F0BBCD31F912A105D2601380D8DEABA2
Now, we could use real content and real hash values for the rest of this post, but hashes are unfriendly and hard to tell apart. Instead, let’s use emoji to represent these inputs and outputs. In the example below, the input (the content to be hashed) is represented by the cat’s face, and the output (which is the resulting hash) is represented by a ribbon:
Imagine that Facebook has run a hash function on two inappropriate images — let’s call them 🚫 and ❌ — and the resulting hashes are 💩 and 💀.
Later, somebody uploads a photo, which we’ll call ?, because Facebook don’t yet know what it is. Facebook hashes the photo, and the result is 💩.
Although no one looked at the mystery picture, Facebook knows it’s the inappropriate photo that we’re calling 🚫, because the hashes match. No one had to look at the newly uploaded input directly, because it has the same hash as a photo known to be inappropriate.
Photo identification is just one application of hashing. Bitcoin mining, which creates new bitcoin and adds new transactions to the blockchain, is another.
So far, in Part 1, we’ve learned that Bitcoin is a decentralized currency, not generated by any government or financial institution, and what hashing is. In Part 2, we’ll learn how bitcoin miners use hashing to literally make money, and how cryptography allows bitcoins to be unique and non-copyable even though they are completely (and irreversibly) transferrable.Making Money Trustworthy
Bitcoin Explained (with Emoji), Part 2medium.com
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